INES INFORMATION SERVICE
The International Network of Engineers and Scientists for Global Responsibility (INES) is an independent non-profit-organization concerned about the impact of science and technology on society. INES was founded in 1991. INES' efforts focus on disarmament and international peace, ethics, justice and sustainable development. INES is affiliated with the United Nations and with UNESCO as a NON-Governmental Organization (NGO). INES has become a network of nearly 100 organisations and individual members.
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Topics, INES, WNII, Issue No. 12/2007, August 2007
1. INES ACTIVITIES
- Sixty-Two Years after the Hiroshima and Nagasaki Bombings by David Krieger
- Reminder of: The 3rd Living Knowledge Conference, in Paris (Aug 30 - Sept 1, 2007)
- Pugwash Conferences on Science and World affairs "Current Dangers of Nuclear weapons", in Copenhagen (Sept 27, 2007)
2. WAR AND PEACE - ARMS RACE AND DISARMAMENT
- In Focus: Iraq Violence
- Lebanon: A year after end of war, UN envoy stresses need to heal political rifts
- Nuke War Watch: Arms race shadow by Craig Eisendrath
- UN emergency fund provides $40 million for 16 global crises
- UNHCR calls for more effort to ensure Afghan refugees can reintegrate
- Play on - music serves as tool in UN-backed plan for peaceful elections in Sierra Leone
- The Decision to Risk the Future: Harry Truman, the Atomic Bomb and the Apocalyptic Narrative by Peter J. Kuznick
3. SCIENCE AND ETHICS
- Friends of the Earth endorses UCU calls for green curricula
- Corporate Social Responsibility; How do countries rank? by Anup Shah
4. SUSTAINABILITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE
- "Climate change, a social issue too" by Tamil Nadu
- Germany Plans Energy Saving Measures to Tackle Climate Change
- Millions face Heathrow ban as injunction attempts to block peaceful protest
5. NUCLEAR AND RENEWABLE ENERGIES
- Japan's Nuclear Plant and the Earthquake
- Disarmament: US-India Nuke Deal May Spark Asian Arms Race by Thalif Deen
- Construction of new shelter for Chernobyl falls 7 years behind
- Saudi Arabia's Secret Nuclear Program Exposed
- Too Hot to Handle? The Future of Civil Nuclear Power by Frank Barnaby and James Kemp
6. CONFERENCES AND ACTIVITIES
- Event Cycle in Germany on "Energy, Resources, Peace - Challenges for a Sustainable Society", in Germany (Sept 16-19, 2007)
- Toda/NAPF Conference: "The Challenge of Abolishing Nuclear Weapons", in the USA (Sept 7-9, 2007)
- Peter, Paul & Mary - Evening for Peace, in the USA (Sept 17, 2007)
- International IPPNW-Conference, in London (Oct 3-4, 2007)
- IPPNW Germany launches worldwide e-Card Campaign
- Books or Bombs? IPB Seminar and Council, in Alexandria, Egypt (Oct 11-13, 2007)
- High Commissioner for Human Rights releases new study on transitional justice in Northern Uganda
- Hiroshima Peace Declaration Marking the 62nd Anniversary of Atomic Bombing by Tadatoshi Akiba, Mayor of Hiroshima
9. SOMETHING EXTRAORDINARY
- Green Cuisine: Earth-friendly, healthy recipes from top chefs and local farmers
10. A BOOK REVIEW IN THE END
- A man of peace. One scientist's journey from the Manhattan Project to the Nobel Peace Prize by Malcolm Dando
1. INES ACTIVITIES
SIXTY-TWO YEARS AFTER THE HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI BOMBINGS by David Krieger
August 6 and 9, 2007 mark respectively the 62nd anniversaries of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
On August 6, 1945, Hiroshima was destroyed by a single atomic weapon with a core of enriched uranium. The blast, heat, fire and radiation killed 90,000 people almost immediately and 145,000 by the end of 1945.
To read the rest of the article, please visit:
Source: Sunflower eNewsletter, August 2007
THE 3rd LIVING KNOWLEDGE CONFERENCE
Aug 30 - Sept 1, 2007
Ecole des Mines, Paris
Communities Building Knowledge - Innovation through Citizens' Science and University Engagement
You will find all information about the conference at:
PUGWASH CONFERENCES ON SCIENCE AND WORLD AFFAIRS "CURRENT DANGERS OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS"
Sept 27, 2007
Landtingssalen, Christiansborg Palace, 1240 Copenhagen K
Get invitation and programme:
2. WAR AND PEACE - ARMSRACE AND DISARMAMENT
IN FOCUS: IRAQ VIOLENCE
* ATROCITY CASTS SPOTLIGHT ON US POLICY by John Simpson
Aug 16, 2007 - The surge has forced insurgents to launch attacks out of major cities
The attacks on the two Yazidi villages in northern Iraq on Tuesday were a form of ethnic and religious cleansing - genocide, you could almost say.
UN CALLS ON IRAQI LEADERS TO SET ASIDE RELIGIOUS DIFFERENCES AFTER DEADLY CAR BLASTS
Aug 15, 2007 - United Nations officials today called on Iraqi leaders to set aside religious and political difference and protect civilians after yesterday's multiple car bombings in the north of the country that reportedly left at least 200 people dead and many more wounded.
"Nothing can justify such indiscriminate violence against innocent civilians," Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said in a statement issued by his spokesperson.
He reiterated "the urgent need for all Iraqi leaders, regardless of their political or religious affiliations, to work together to protect civilian lives and to dedicate themselves towards a meaningful dialogue aimed at ending the violence and achieving lasting national reconciliation."
Mr. Ban's Special Representative in Iraq, Ashraf Qazi, condemned the attacks in the villages of Kahtaniya, al-Jazeera and Tal Uzair in northern Iraq as an "abominable crime aimed at widening the sectarian and ethnic divide."
He called on the authorities to ensure that those responsible for "this horrific crime" are brought to justice.
Both Mr. Ban and Mr. Qazi extended their condolences to the families of those killed and their wishes for a full and speedy recovery for those who were wounded.
FACTBOX - WHO ARE THE YAZIDIS?
- The Yazidi religion is a syncretic combination of Zoroastrian, Manichaean, Jewish, Nestorian Christian and Islam.
- The Yazidi themselves are thought to be descended from supporters of the Umayyad caliph Yazid I.
- They believe that they were created quite separately from the rest of mankind, not even being descended from Adam, and they have kept themselves strictly segregated from the people among whom they live.
- Yazidis are antidualists; they deny the existence of evil and therefore also reject sin, the devil, and hell.
- The Yazidi relate that, when the devil repented of his sin of pride before God, he was pardoned and replaced in his previous position as chief of the angels; this has often resulted in Yazidis being described as devil worshippers.
- Sheikh Adi, the chief Yazidi saint, was a 12th century Muslim mystic whom the Yazidi believe to have achieved divinity through metempsychosis.
A religious centre:
- The Yazidi religious centre and object of the annual pilgrimage is the tomb of Sheikh Adi, located at a former Christian monastery in a town north of Mosul.
- Yazidis consider marriage outside their faith a sin punishable by death to restore lost honour.
- In April, gunmen shot dead 23 Yazidi factory workers in Mosul in apparent retaliation for the stoning several weeks earlier of a teenage Yazidi girl who police said had fallen in love with a Muslim man and converted to Islam.
IRAQ VIOLENCE, IN FIGURE
Tens of thousands of people have died in Iraq since the US-led invasion of March 2003. But exactly how many Iraqi lives have been lost is a controversial topic, with estimates varying wildly.
More than 3,900 coalition soldiers have died, but US forces do not keep complete records of civilians killed.
Nor does the Iraqi government have a precise figure. Health ministry estimates in November 2006 ranged from 100,000 to 150,000 dead.
This contrasts with a survey of Iraqi households in the Lancet, which suggested that - by July 2006 - about 655,000 Iraqi deaths were "a consequence of the war".
These estimates are both higher than the running total of reported civilian deaths maintained by the campaign group, Iraq Body Count.
Using two media reports as its source for each death, IBC says the civilian death toll is between 67,000 and 73,000. But the organisation also warns that many deaths may not have been reported.
These pages - updated monthly - give an overview of the most recent estimates.
LEBANON: A YEAR YFTER END OF WAR, UN ENVOY STRESSES NEED TO HEAL POLITICAL RIFTS
Aug 14, 2007 - Lebanon's people cannot afford the "fractious political atmosphere" that has emerged during the past year to continue, a senior United Nations official warned today, urging the country's leaders to prove that they can overcome their differences and serve national interests rather than the agenda of the parties.
NUKE WAR WATCH: ARMS RACE SHADOW by Craig Eisendrath
Aug 7, 2007 - In December 1957 I was a private first-class in the U.S. Army stationed at Schofield Barracks in Hawaii. We had a Russian kid in our unit, and when we weren't on guard duty or peeling potatoes, he would translate programs for us from Radio Moscow.
UN EMERGENCY FUND PROVIDES $40 MILLION FOR 16 GLOBAL CRISES
Aug 1, 2007 - The top United Nations humanitarian official today announced a grant of $40 million from the world body's Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) to provide life-saving support in 16 so-called forgotten crises around the world.
The countries selected for grants face severe ongoing emergencies, against a backdrop of protracted humanitarian needs and low levels of funding, according to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA).
For the entire article visit:
UNHCR CALLS FOR MORE EFFORT TO ENSURE AFGHAN REFUGEES CAN REINTEGRATE
July 31, 2007 - The UN refugee agency warned on Tuesday that intensive work was needed to ensure that Afghan refugees repatriating in the future are able to successfully resume life in their homeland.
PLAY ON - MUSIC SERVES AS TOOL IN UN-BACKED PLAN FOR PEACEFUL ELECTIONS IN SIERRA LEONE
July 31, 2007 - If music be the food of love, then it can also serve to promote peaceful elections in a country recovering from a disastrous decade-long civil war. Such is the updating of the famous line from Shakespeare adapted by the United Nations and its partners to fit the upcoming polls in Sierra Leone.
THE DECISION TO RISK THE FUTURE: HARRY TRUMAN, THE ATOMIC BOMB AND THE APOCALYPTIC NARRATIVE by Peter J. Kuznick
In his personal narrative Atomic Quest, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Arthur Holly Compton, who directed atomic research at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory during the Second World War, tells of receiving an urgent visit from J. Robert Oppenheimer while vacationing in Michigan during the summer of 1942. Oppenheimer and the brain trust he assembled had just calculated the possibility that an atomic explosion could ignite all the hydrogen in the oceans or the nitrogen in the atmosphere. If such a possibility existed, Compton concluded, "these bombs must never be made." As Compton said, "Better to accept the slavery of the Nazis than to run a chance of drawing the final curtain on mankind." Certainly, any reasonable human being could be expected to respond similarly.
To read more, please visit:
3. SCIENCE AND ETHICS
FRIENDS OF THE EARTH ENDORSES UCU CALLS FOR GREEN CURRICULA
Aug 10, 2007 - Friends of the Earth has supported calls from the University and College Union (UCU) for more environmental education in the college curriculum. UCU plans are in response to the results of a survey by the Association of Colleges (AoC) which revealed that 88% of colleges believe sustainability should feature in all curriculum areas. In a related report, the AoC also highlighted the growth and variety of environment related courses.
CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: HOW DO COUNTRIES RANK? by Anup Shah
July 7, 2007 - An index called the Responsible Competitiveness Index attempts to rank most countries according to how responsible their business
practices are. As expected, advanced economies rank highest (Nordic countries are at the very top). Corporate Social Responsibility is
a bit of a buzz word and some feel that it has been diluted from its original aims, while others are trying to find innovative ways
to engage with businesses to be more responsible in their practices
Read the article:
4. SUSTAINABILITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE
"CLIMATE CHANGE, A SOCIAL ISSUE TOO" by Tamil Nadu
Aug 17, 2007 - Climate change is not just an environmental problem but also a social, economical and political issue, according to speakers at a seminar in Chennai on Thursday. The developing countries, which contributed the least to the problem, had disproportionately borne the cost of the effects of the phenomenon. The poor in these nations were the worst hit. Some of the remedial measures had an adverse impact on the economically weaker sections. The seminar was organised by the FICCI Ladies Organisation (FLO) and MOP Vaishnav College for Women.
GERMANY PLANS ENERGY SAVING MEASURES TO TACKLE CLIMATE CHANGE
Aug 16, 2007 - The German government has reached broad agreement on a number of energy savings measures as it implements a drive by Chancellor Angela Merkel to battle climate change.
Some of the highlights you will find here:
MILLIONS FACE HEATHROW BAN AS INJUNCTION ATTEMPTS TO BLOCK PEACEFUL PROTEST
July 27, 2007 - Heathrow airport is going to court next week in an attempt to ban environmental campaigners from the airport, parts of the rail network and sections of the M25 and M4 motorways. The ban aims to shut down a planned peaceful protest against the expansion of Heathrow airport from 14-21 August 2007.
5. NUCLEAR AND RENEWABLE ENERGIES
JAPAN'S NUCLEAR PLANT THE EARTHQUAKE
JAPANESE NUCLEAR PLANT HIT BY QUAKE SHUT DOWN SAFELY, UN EXPERT TEAM CONCLUDES
Aug 15, 2007 - A Japanese nuclear power plant damaged by a strong earthquake last month shut down safely, and the very small amount of radioactivity released was well below the authorized limits for public health and environmental safety, according to a United Nations-sponsored fact-finding team of international nuclear safety experts.
REPORT ON EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE TO JAPAN'S KASHIWAZAKI-KARIWA NUCLEAR PLANT
This is a a brief report from Nuclear Information and Resource Service on damage to Japan's Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power facility caused by last month's earthquake.
To read the report, visit:
DISARMAMENT: US-INDIA NUKE DEAL MAY SPARK ASIAN ARMS RACE by Thalif Deen
Aug 1, 2007 - The U.S. decision last week to proceed with a controversial civilian nuclear deal with India has triggered strong negative responses from peace activists, disarmament experts and anti-nuclear groups.
"The development of a nuclear/strategic alliance between the United States and India may promote arms racing between India and Pakistan, and (between) India and China," says John Burroughs, executive director of the New York-based Lawyers' Committee on Nuclear Policy.
The deal, he told IPS, also undermines prospects for global agreements on nuclear restraint and disarmament.
An equally negative reaction came from former UN Under-Secretary-General for Disarmament Affairs Jayantha Dhanapala: "It has the dangerous potential of triggering a nuclear arms race among India, Pakistan and China, with disastrous consequences for Asian peace and stability and Asia's emerging economic boom."
But the Indian government argues that the nuclear agreement would neither destabilise the region nor prompt an arms race.
CONSTRUCTION OF NEW SHELTER FOR CHERNOBLY FALLS SEVEN YEARS BEHIND
July 30, 2007 - Construction of a new shelter for the Chernobyl reactor destroyed in a 1986 accident has fallen about seven years behind schedule, primarily due to the
failure to award a construction contract, the Government Accountability Office said in a report released July 27.
"The lack of a contract is partly the result of a lengthy disagreement between the Ukraine and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development," GAO
said. "Technical uncertainties ... have also contributed to schedule slippages and threaten to further delay the project," GAO said in its report. The
estimated cost to complete the project is currently $1.2 billion, but "escalating prices for labor and materials" and other factors "could raise
costs further," it said.
The report, GAO-07-923, is available online (pdf):
For more news, request a free trial to Platts Nucleonics Week at
Saudi Arabia's Secret Nuclear Program Exposed
July 25, 2007 - A Saudi website revealed the secret nuclear program of the Saudi Arabia which is underway with the help of Pakistan.
The news website 'Sawt Al-Salam' announced on Wednesday that a group of Pakistani nuclear scientists who entered Saudi Arabia during the Hajj ceremony in 2003 have been working to expand the secret nuclear program of the country, Fars reported.
"During the Hajj pilgrimages to Mecca from 2003 through 2005, Pakistani scientists posed as pilgrims have come to Saudi Arabia and helped it expand its nuclear program," the website said.
It adds that between October 2004 and January 2005, some of them slipped off from pilgrimages, sometimes for up to three weeks.
According to Western security services, the website added, Saudi scientists have been working since the mid-1990s in Pakistan, a nuclear power since 1998. It says the scientists advised the Saudi government to build its nuclear laboratories below prisons that are under construction.
"The Saudi government has also hired some Iraqi nuclear scientists to help its nuclear program. Some residential complexes have also been constructed in southern Riyadh for them," it said.
Sawt Al-Salam also quoted a US military analyst, John Pike, as saying that Saudi barcodes can be found on half of Pakistan's nuclear weapons because Saudi Arabia co-financed the Pakistani atomic nuclear program.
The website also said satellite images indicate Saudi Arabia has set up a base in Al-Sulaiyil, south of Riyadh, a secret underground city and dozens of underground silos for missiles.
TOO HOT TO HANDLE? THE FUTURE OF CIVIL NUCLEAR POWER by Frank Barnaby and James Kemp
This briefing paper argues that a worldwide nuclear renaissance is beyond the capacity of the nuclear industry to deliver and would stretch to breaking point the capacity of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to monitor and safeguard civil nuclear power. If this happened, the authors argue that governments would need to again review energy policy - minus civil nuclear power - further delaying progress towards a sustainable and secure energy policy, and possibly causing the UK and other countries to miss the window of opportunity to tackle climate change. This briefing paper is one of a series of reports and fact sheets published as part of Oxford Research Group's Secure Energy Project.
To read the briefing paper, visit:
6. CONFERENCES AND ACTIVITIES
EVENT CYCLE IN GERMANY ON "ENERGY, RESOURCES, PEACE - CHALLENGES FOR A SUSTAINABLE SOCIETY"
with Johan Galtung, Bianca Jagger and other Alternative Nobel Laureates,
Winners of the DBU Environmental Award,
and well-known politicians and scientists
September 16-19, 2007
Osnabruck, Bonn, NRW/Niedersachsen, Berlin
A joint venture of the German Foundation for Environment (Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt, DBU), the German Foundation for Peace Research (Deutsche Stiftung Friedensforschung, DSF), the North Rhine-Westphalian Foundation for Environment and Development (Nordrhein-Westfälische Stiftung für Umwelt und Entwicklung), and the Right Livelihood Award Foundation.
One can discern in politics and publicity an increasing uncertainty on how to meet the looming climate change as well as on how to ensure future energy supply without crises and conflict. Considerations for a dramatic shift in the energy and climate politics were formulated.
Based on scientifically grounded scenarios it is possible to hypothesise that the usage of energy and resources may not only possibly cause irreversible changes of living conditions but also entail significant economical impacts and social conflicts (IPCC-Report 2007, Stern Review). These global challenges require resolute political actions that demand a broad societal acceptance and support.
To meet the comprehensive challenges regarding the environment, peace and development the foundations joined forces to create a so far unique forum of well-known experts from the peace and development research, winners of the DBU Environmental Award and alternative Nobel Laureates of the Right Livelihood Award. Their objective is to introduce, analyse and discuss from an interdisciplinary perspective central areas surrounding energy, resources and peace,
including local and global solutions to their problems.
The expert's forum brings together different foundation networks to discuss resolution paths as well as political and economical options for action. The main focus of the discussion is the connection of resource problems and question surrounding peacebuilding or peaceful conflict resolution. urthermore, impulses for new forms of cooperation between science, policy and practice shall be launched.
The final event in Berlin shall give a condign ending to the future discourse raised on the expert forum and the regional events on September 16-17, 2007.
For more and detailed information, the different programs etc. please contact:
Reiner Braun (project co-ordinator) or
Kristin Kropidlowski (press and public relations)
e-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org and visit also the homepage at www.dbu.de/012007
TODA/NAPF CONFERENCE: "THE CHALLENGE OF ABOLISHING NUCLEAR WEAPONS"
From September 7th-9th an international conference cosponsored by the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation and the Toda Institute will convene in San Francisco. The conference will bring together 25 leading figures in the nuclear weapons abolition movement from around the world. Participants will come together to discuss strategies for moving forward in achieving a world free of nuclear weapons. The conference papers will be published in book-form following the conference.
Source: Sunflower, eNewsletter, August 2007
PETER, PAUL & MARY - EVENING FOR PEACE
For more than four decades, Peter, Paul & Mary have sounded the call for peace with songs as potent as they are sweet. The trio has been an inspiration for millions of people, creating close musical harmony even as they work for greater social harmony in the world. We're excited to let you know that on the evening of September 17th, in Santa Barbara, the trio will receive the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation's 2007 Distinguished Peace Leadership Award. Past recipients include the Dalai Lama, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Jacques Cousteau, Helen Caldicott and Walter Cronkite. This year we are doing something new: we are creating an intimate evening with Peter, Paul & Mary as the centerpiece. In providing the trio the space to share their own inspiring experience, and through the incorporation of powerful archival film footage, we hope to animate an era, similar to our own, during which people were weary of war and were actively involved in the pursuit of peace. By choosing to support our Evening for Peace, you will be helping the Foundation in its efforts to create a world free of nuclear weapons and to develop new peace leaders among our youth.
Please visit this website if you would like to be put on our invitation list for this special Evening for Peace: http://www.wagingpeace.org/menu/programs/public-events/evening-for-peace/2007/index.htm.
Source: Sunflower, eNewsletter, August 2007
"Nuclear Weapons: The Final Pandemic. Preventing Proliferation and Achieving Abolition"
October 3-4 2007, London, Royal Society of Medicine and IPPNW
The Catastrophes and Conflict Forum of the Royal Society of Medicine and the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW) will hold an international conference on the health and environmental implications of the nuclear threat in a post-Cold-War world. With the collapse of the 2005 NPT Review and subsequent calls for a renewed civil society campaign to achieve a Nuclear Weapons Convention, IPPNW's medical message about nuclear war has taken on renewed.
IPPNW GERMANY LAUNCHES WORLDWIDE E-CARD CAMPAIGN
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was founded on July 29th, 1957. On the occasion of this 50th anniversary IPPNW-Germany has created an electronic birthday card to the IAEA that criticizes the agency´s role in promoting so-called peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The e-card can be viewed, personalized, and signed at www.iaea.ippnw.de.
According to its founding statute, the aim of the IAEA is to prevent nuclear weapons proliferation while, at the same time, enlarging the peaceful use of nuclear energy. IPPNW believes that this is a self-contradictory mission.
Sign the e-card at http://www.iaea.ippnw.de
For more information, please visit:
Read the brief statement about the new agreement between France and Libya in French
BOOKS OR BOMBS? IPB Seminar and Council, in Alexandria, Egypt
November 11-13, 2007
IPB is pleased to announce its annual Council meeting, to be held at the Biblioteca Alexandrina, Alexandria, Egypt this autumn. It will be arranged jointly with an international seminar on the theme of our main programme: Sustainable Disarmament for Sustainable Development. Discussions are under way with various institutions in Alexandria, including the Peace Studies Institute and the Swedish Institute, regarding co-sponsorship and co-organisation.
Message to IPB members:
If you have information on events that are relevant to this calendar please email them to the Secretariat at email@example.com
HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS RELEASES NEW STUDY ON TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE IN NORTHERN UGANDA
Aug 14, 2007 - The United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights today released a new qualitative field research study that details the perceptions of victims in the Northern Uganda conflict on accountability, reconciliation and transitional justice.
The report "Making Peace Our Own: Victims Perceptions of Accountability, Reconciliation and Transitional justice in Northern Uganda" aims to amplify the victims' voices on these three critical issues. The report seeks to contribute to ongoing discussions on how best to redress Northern Uganda's past abuses, violations and deep-seated social economic inequalities, in particular in relation to the Juba peace talks between the Government of Uganda and the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA).
The report highlights the fact that the communities hold both the LRA and the Government responsible for the harm, trauma, neglect and other rights violations endured and believe they should be held accountable. Many respondents argued that a multi-faceted transitional justice mechanism addressing different types of harm caused by different levels of perpetrators is required.
The study points to varying perceptions regarding which mechanism can best deliver truth and compensation, both of which were consistently identified as the principal transitional justices needs of the communities. Similarly, perceptions on the virtues of amnesty, domestic prosecution, the International Criminal Court (ICC) and local or traditional practices were greatly mixed. The desire to prevent impunity was however consistently present amongst affected communities.
OHCHR conducted the study from January to June 2007, with the participation of 1,725 victims of the conflict in 69 focus groups in Acholiland, Lango and Teso sub-regions. Interviews were also conducted with 39 key informants to provide a degree of cultural interpretation of responses from the focus groups.
Download the report (pdf):
HIROSHIMA PEACE DECLARATION MARKING THE 62nd ANNIVERSARY OF ATOMIC BOMBING by Tadatoshi Akiba, Mayor of Hiroshima
The government of Japan, the world's only A-bombed nation, is duty-bound to humbly learn the philosophy of the hibakusha along with the facts of the atomic bombings and to spread this knowledge through the world. At the same time, to abide by international law and fulfill its good-faith obligation to press for nuclear weapons abolition, the Japanese government should take pride in and protect, as is, the Peace Constitution, while clearly saying "No," to obsolete and mistaken US policies. We further demand, on behalf of the hibakusha whose average age now exceeds 74, improved and appropriate assistance, to be extended also to those living overseas or exposed in "black rain areas."
Sixty-two years after the atomic bombing, we offer today our heartfelt prayers for the peaceful repose of all its victims and of Iccho Itoh, the mayor of Nagasaki shot down on his way toward nuclear weapons abolition. Let us pledge here and now to take all actions required to bequeath to future generations a nuclear-weapon-free world.
To read the rest of the statement, please visit:
9. SOMETHING EXTRAORDINARY
GREEN CUISINE: EARTH-FRIENDLY, HEALTHY RECIPES FROM TOP CHEFS AND LOCAL FARMERS
Chefs all around the country are committed to using local, organic ingredients in their dishes. In the slideshow on the right, UCS talks with Nora Pouillon, owner of Restaurant Nora and Asia Nora in the nation's capital, about why supporting small farmers in the region is so important. We also meet local grower Jim Crawford of New Morning Farm and the Tuscarora Organic Growers Cooperative, before finally snagging one of Nora's seasonal summer recipes to share with you.
10. A BOOK REVIEW IN THE END
A man of peace. One scientist's journey from the Manhattan Project to the Nobel Peace Prize by Malcolm Dando
- Joseph Rotblat: Visionary for Peace edited by Reiner Braun, Robert Hinde, David Krieger, Harold Kroto & Sally Milne. Wiley: 2007. 371 pp. $45, £27.50
- War and Peace: The Life and Work of Sir Joseph Rotblat edited by Peter Rowlands & Vincent Attwood. University of Liverpool: 2006. 338 pp. £15
Joseph Rotblat, when receiving the honorary degree of Doctor of Science from Bradford University in 1973, described the ongoing build-up of nuclear arms and the underlying doctrine of deterrence: "This doctrine of deterrence is known under the name of mutual assured destruction: M.A.D. It is indeed a mad system in which survival depends on the threat of total annihilation."
Such a system, he believed, was bound to fail sooner or later and so he advocated an alternative: "One in which our survival is based on mutual incentives, on the recognition of the ever-growing interdependence of all members of society all over the world, on the utilization of the vast potential of technology to build and sustain a clean and healthy world."
The two books reviewed here, Joseph Rotblat: Visionary for Peace and War and Peace: The Life and Work of Sir Joseph Rotblat, celebrate the achievements of the nuclear physicist, who died in 2005 aged 96 (Nature 437, 634; 2005). For much of his long life, Joseph Rotblat advanced the argument that nuclear deterrence was extremely dangerous, but that there were positive alternative uses of our science and technology. Yet rejection of the doctrine of deterrence had not always been Rotblat's position. As one of the first scientists to realize that atomic bombs of incredible destructiveness were possible because of
advances in our understanding of physics, he felt it was necessary to develop such bombs in order to deter Hitlerite Germany from using them, should it develop that capability. Thus, he became a member of the Manhattan Project in the United States and went to work at Los Alamos. However, when he realized that Germany could not develop the bomb, he left and returned to the United Kingdom.
Today, life scientists increasingly face the dual-use dilemma that physicists had to confront in the middle of the last century. It is becoming ever clearer that the vast new capabilities being generated by the biotechnology revolution for beneficial reasons could also be used for extremely destructive, hostile purposes. As Sir Joseph indicated in his lecture 'Citizenship and the Challenge of Science' in March 2002: "We already know about advances in biological warfare whereby gene manipulation could change some pathogens into terrifyingly virulent agents. But entirely different mechanisms might be developed. We cannot predict the destructive potential of military applications. All we can say is that the danger is real."
Despite the growing attention directed at the potential misuse of benignly intended lifescience research by states parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention, few practising life scientists have grasped the nature of the problem, let alone considered what might be done to prevent the large-scale hostile use of their technology in future decades.
These two fascinating sets of essays would be a good place for life scientists to begin considering their dual-use problem and what might best be done about it. War and Peace is based on a conference held at Liverpool University, UK, in October 2006. It was to the Physics Department of Liverpool University that Rotblat moved, from Poland, just before the start of the Second World War, tragically having to leave his sick wife behind. The book contains essays from numerous people who knew him well and casts many different lights on his life: his early career in Poland; his work in Liverpool and then in medical physics at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London; and his decades of work as a campaigner for peace and cooperation. I particularly liked the archivist's story of carrying away some three tonnes of papers from Rotblat's home to the University of Bath, UK, for cataloguing. Rotblat's few 'faults' included an inability to throw away any records.
There is some overlap between this book and Visionary for Peace, but the latter deals to a greater extent with Rotblat's international activities for nuclear disarmament and peaceful cooperation, for which he and his
creation, the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, jointly received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1995. Mikhail Gorbachev, for example, recalls how he came to know Rotblat personally in the 1990s and how, at meetings of Nobel Peace Prize-winners, Rotblat's contribution to discussions of nuclear disarmament was invaluable because he was "the best qualified and perhaps the most passionate participant". Gorbachev also noted that as the 1990s progressed, "concern and alarm in our discussions became more and more prominent". He concluded: "We should not delude ourselves: in the final analysis, the problem can only be solved through the abolition of nuclear weapons. So long as they continue to exist, the danger will be with us."
Rotblat would certainly have agreed, and Visionary for Peace has a useful appendix of a set of his writings, which include his 2003 paper, 'The Nuclear Issue: Pugwash and the Bush Policies'. This contains a typically incisive condemnation of the recent lurch to yet more reliance on nuclear weapons in the Western world: "The use of nuclear weapons is seen by the great majority of people in the world as immoral, due to their indiscriminate nature and unprecedented power. Their possession - and therefore likely use - is thus equally unacceptable, whether by 'rogue' or benevolent regimes." Little wonder then that Pugwash scientists have argued against the replacement of Trident by the United Kingdom.
Few of us are able to achieve a mature balance between our many activities and diverse relationships. Yet, despite his hectic work schedule, Joseph Rotblat was universally regarded as an exceptionally kind and generous person. His wife and her mother died in the Holocaust but members of the family joined him in England after the war. An essay by his niece, Halina Sand, demonstrates his humanity so well: "His warmth and kindness to me continued throughout his life, descending through the generations to my two daughters and their children. In his mid-nineties, and in poor health, he was still able to charm his small great-great-niece and twin great-greatnephews, just as he had once enthralled their mother and their grandmother." Joseph Rotblat was indeed a man of peace.
About the author:
Malcolm Dando is professor of international security at the Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, Bradford, West Yorkshire, BD7 1DP, UK.
Source: Nature, Vol 448, 26 July 2007